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Critical Evaluation of Role of Atopy in Developing Asthma

Introduction

The term asthma is used to convey different groups of disease, which causes same clinical impacts that is airflow obstruction. In this respect, asthma has been relevantly found associated with the airways inflammation, however, airways inflammation and variable airways obstruction are not found closely related. Asthma has been observed as immunological as well as pathophysiological mechanisms through which the variable airflow obstructions are taken into account taking place such as atopy or bronchial hyperresponsiveness. It results in excluding important amount of asthma condition while making the relationship between asthma and atopy tautological. In this way, atopy is defined as allergic condition, which is inclined to come together in families including asthma, hay fever, eczema and other allergies. This paper aims to investigate the role of atopy in the development of asthma through critically evaluating and reviewing five primary peer reviewed articles.

Summary of Articles

When reviewing the articles for comprehending how atopy serves in developing the asthma, the study of Willart and Lambrecht (2008) was found significantly relevant, as this study was conducted to investigate the association of atopy with asthma and their relevant risks imposed by inhaled particles. In this study, Willart and Lambrecht (2008) found asthma as a chronic immune mediated inflammatory disease to be triggered by the wheezing and breathlessness, which can also be found due to atopy, however, this occurrence of asthma in atopic setting can vary in the types of immune responses. This study mainly focused on the endogenous danger signals in the beginning and preservation stage of asthma developed by atopy. Hire  assignment writer to have your paper written professionally

Similarly, the study conducted by Taylor et al, (2007) mainly found that individuals with atopy are more likely to have asthma due to immune pollen allergy in the environment. To support their argument, the authors mainly emphasized on the inhalation aerosols of pollen and pollen fragments by the atopic individual who as a result becomes asthmatic. They concluded that atopic individual with meteorologic reactions of pollen fragmentation as well as aerosolization is likely to have pollen fragments of respirable size, which is inhaled and triggers the asthma.  Buy thesis online from quality thesis writing

Another study of Souef (2009) investigated the role of genetic and environmental factor in developing atopic asthma. To support this study, he found the links between genetic and environment factors as leading to asthma developed with atopy. In this way, the author presented the facts that viral infection as an environmental factor can lead to atopy and asthma, as episodic respiratory viral infections can significantly cause wheeze, which is one of the predicator of asthma. He determined that atopy is less significantly involved in the development of asthma specifically in acute wheezing and found that acute respiratory viral infection and non-acute allergen exposure is the key environmental cause of asthma. He further evaluated the genetics factors to analyze how genetic factors causing atopy can trigger to asthma. For this purpose, he assessed the role of innate immunity a toll-like receptor genes that are likely to have the elements of leading to asthma in atopic. As previously the role of environmental factor discussed, he further related the development of asthma with the genetics of immune system specifically genetics organizing the innate immune responses.  Get the best  essay writing service online

 polymorpgisms in the eczema and asthma to identify the risk factors involved in the atopic disease. Concerning the role of atopy in the development of asthma, he presented eczema an atopic disease as common skin disease of chronic inflammatory. In this study, authors were mainly found associating the eczema as important source of asthma, which is related to genetic. Authors determined that eczema as atopic disease is caused by immunologic in etiopathogenesis and it can lead to asthma due to presence of immunologic in etiopathogenesis in the blood. However, study did not focus on the investigation of the relationship between atopy and asthma. This study has been effective in determining the role of atopy in developing the asthma.

Another study conducted by Burgess et al. (2009) observed the relationship between eczema an atopic disorder and asthma. In this study, the authors have found the causal relationship between atopy and asthma, as they determined that eczema and asthma could be held related disorder based on their environmental and genetic risk factors. In order to support this argument, they presented the fact based on the association between eczema and allergic rhinitis that has been observed, in which primary atopy was taken into account as to be linking these disorders. The study further demonstrated the causal link between eczema and the respiratory disorder, which shows the causal relationship between the disorders and proves the strong role of atopy in developing the asthma. This study shares the similarity with the previous study discussed in the paper, which also based its study about filaggrin polymorpgisms in the eczema and asthma to identify the risk factors.  Furthermore, this study supports the previous study that used the relationship between atopy and asthma for their study.    

Critical Evaluation

By evaluating the discussion and finding presented in articles, great differences in approach and results of studies have been found in relation to role of atopy in developing the asthma. Additionally, the level of differences among studies is also found in terms of covering the issue. After reviewing the article Willart and Lambrecht (2008), it has been observed that authors have mainly concentrated on the work of other researchers and evaluated the ways atopic and non-atopic asthma are allergens while there is little discussion about how atopy serves in developing the asthma. When discussing the causes of asthma, authors have given slight reference of contribution of atopy in developing the asthma for which the evidences provided are mainly based on the previous literature. Since the study of Willart and Lambrecht (2008) was aimed at evaluating the role of antigen containing dendritic cells (DCs) perform in activating the T cell responses in atopic asthma along with the distinct ways endogenous danger signals trigger DCs to rise T cell responses to inhaled allergen. Therefore, the evidences found in the study concerning role of atopy in developing asthma is that atopy leads to asthma through providing exposure to specific antigen that triggers asthma. Buy  dissertation service with expert Ph.D. writers

On the contrary, the study of Taylor et al., (2007) that discussed the role of atopy in developing asthma in relation to pollens allergy was of great significance, as it greatly served in understanding how individual with atopy due to pollen allergy can be victim of asthma. In this way, the study has contributed in understanding the causal relationship as to how pollen allergy prevailed in the environment induce the atopy into asthma. Authors to prove this argument have studied scientific role of pollen fragment composition and presented concrete facts regarding these composition that demonstrate the presence of respirable particles in the atmosphere. The study of Taylor et al., (2007), in contrast to study of Willart and Lambrecht (2008) presented effective argument in the support, as study of Willart and Lambrecht (2008) has been found with the gap for addressing the developmental role of endogenous signals in strengthening the asthma.

The study of Souef (2009), after evaluation, has been found extending the areas found in relation to study the role of atopy in developing asthma, as this article has assessed the contribution of environmental as well as genetic factors in triggering the atopy into asthma. The strength of this article is that it has made the use of literature along with identifying its depth and gaps. By reviewing the literature about the environmental factor, study has related the asthma developed by atopy due to viral infection and to support this argument, there is in-depth evaluation that shows how atopy, which is itself a kind of infection, can develop asthma. 

Another study about Rodrı´guez, et al. (2009) that conducted meta-analysis of filaggrin polymorphism was an extension in the study of atopy and asthma, as this article studied the eczema as atopic disease and found how intake of filaggrin polymorphism can increase risk of getting asthma due to eczema. This study helped in understanding how individual with eczema is more likely to have asthma. However, this study was majorly about filaggrin polymorphism and related risk on people with eczema to have asthma. The strength of this study is the statistical analysis made in the study to highlight the relationship between asthma and eczema, as article studied the effect of filaggrin polymorphism on the asthma and eczema, which indicated the critical causal relationship between asthma and eczema as a viral infection. Moreover, to support the findings related to eczema and asthma, the authors have immensely used previous literature, which is similar to previous articles studied in this paper. Get professional  coursework writing service online

The study of Burgess et al (2009), which evaluated how eczema leads to asthma, has been found relevant to study of Rodrı´guez, et al. (2009), however the strength of study of Burgess et al (2009) is that it provided the facts about genetic and environmental role in triggering the eczema into asthma. To support the argument, study focused on the content analysis and used the model that helps in understanding the causal link among eczema, asthma and gene moreover eczema, asthma and environment.            

Conclusion 

This paper critically evaluated and assessed five different peer reviewed articles to identify the role of atopy in the development of asthma, which is more linked with viral infection. This critical evaluation helped in understanding that atopy cannot develop asthma without the presence of certain variables identified in this paper. In this regard, it has been studied that the genetic and environmental factor plays significant role in triggering the skin viral infection that is inclined to lead to asthma. Studies used in this paper are found to be more using content analysis and less focusing on statistical analysis, which may be understood as reason of lack of new findings in the paper. Therefore, in future, there should be focus on such studies, which are based on statistical analysis and concrete findings.


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